The guideline to make the right coupling selection
In the power transmission field, there are many different types of couplings that can be used in order to transfer power from the gear side to the machine. Taking into consideration that each specific application has its own features, it is extremely important to analyse and check what characteristics should our coupling have, to ensure a long-life cycle and a successful performance of our machinery.
We should take into account the following factors in the coupling selection process:
- Environmental requirements: temperature, corrosive environment, etc.
- Accessibility: space required to apply the coupling.
- Geometry requirements: Type of shafts.
- Coupling sizes: maximum outside diameter and length to work with.
- Misalignment requirements: angular, torsional misalignment, angular, etc.
- Mechanical performance requirements: torque, speed, cushioning capability, etc.
1. Environmental requirements
It is important to analyse the area, the temperature where the coupling is going to be exposed, and also if the device is going to be in a corrosive environment or not.
The space might be an issue when placing the coupling. In some applications there is a limited or a difficult access to locate the coupling. Therefore, this is also another key aspect to take into consideration for the coupling selection.
3. Geometry requirements
The type of shafts should be checked, as well as the diameter and the length.
4. Coupling size
As an example; considering the access, space required, and the shaft types, we have to analyse what size would apply best to our installation from our range of products.
5. Misalignment requirements
The operator should check what types of misalignments should be corrected; parallel, torsional, axial, angular or lateral.
6. Mechanical performance requirements
The main target consists on understanding what kind of performance we want to have with our coupling; high torque, high speed, repeatability or high level of flexibility and cushioning.
Decide which type of coupling will be most appropriate depending on the above aspects.
- Rigid coupling: provides a solid connection between two shafts, high precision, and torque transmission but it has no misalignment capabilities. Explained in another way, it allows no movement between two shafts. Sleeve type coupling, flange type coupling,
- Flexible coupling: compensates for some misalignment, movement or deflection. It is very useful when having quick and short starts. Normally less torque transfer, but it can absorb misalignments and shocks.
Instructions for coupling selection
In order to determine the type of coupling to be used the following formula should be applied:
M = N hp/ n. 7017. K
M = N kW/ n. 9549. k
M = Nominal torque
N = Driving-motor power (CV or KW)
n = Minimum speed of the connected axles (rpm)
k = Multiplying co-efficient
The value obtained on applying the formula should be less or equal than the indicated in the tables of sizes and powers that refer to the corresponding coupling in the column “nominal torque”.
|k = Multiplying co-efficient||1||2||3||4||5|
Diesel 4-6 cylinders
|Diesel 2-3 cylinders|
4 Stroke motor
|Diesel 1-2 cylinders|
4 stroke motor
The values indicated in the above table are by no means applicable to every case. If, for example, one of the machines to be coupled displays such a degree of irregularity that it is judged necessary to carry-out technical investigations of the oscillations, then it is recommended to proceed to the selection of the multiplying co-efficient using the enclosed questionnaire.
The following groups apply to the machines being driven:
K-coefficient calculation guidance for different groups of machines.
- Continual load machines: Generators (electro genetic group). Conveyor belts. Small hoisting equipment of up to six starts per hour. Low power machinery for working wood. Small fans. Small machines of which principal movement is rotation. Small centrifugal pumps.
- Generators (electro genetic group). Conveyor belts. Small hoisting equipment of up to six starts per hour. Low power machinery for working wood. Small fans. Small machines of which principal movement is rotation. Small centrifugal pumps.
- Variable load machines: Small hoists. Generators. Winches. Hoisting equipment of up to 120 starts per hour. Conveyor chains. Crane movement mechanism. Sand blast equipment. Textile machinery. Transmissions. Conveyors Turbo blowers (gas blowers: compressors). Fans. Machine tools in which main movement is rotation. Large winches. Centrifugal pumps.
- Normal size to heavy machinery: Heavy hoists. Revolving ovens Tannin barrels. Cylinder grinders. Refrigerating drums Continuous Ring Looms. Mechanical mixers. Cutters. Sharpening machines. Washing machines. Looms. Brick presses. Fans Hoisting equipment of up to 300 starts per hour. Translation mechanism.
- Heavy machinery: Dredge control mechanism. Briquette presses. Rubber rollers. Ventilators for mines. Machinery for sand papering wood. Sand and paper grinders. Pumps with immersible piston. Cleaning drums. Machinery of oscillating movement. Compound grinders. Cement grinders. Drawbenches. Hoisting mechanisms. Hoisting Equipment of more than 300 runs per hour.
- Heavy machinery of variable energy consumption: Large drilling installations Machinery for glossing sheets of paper. Horizontal and reciprocating vertical saws. Presses. Paper calenders. Roller trains for laminators. Drier rollers Small rollers for metals Centrifuges. Roller equipment for paper.
The elevator bucket is driven by a motor of 16 kW; n=1.450 rpm., by means of a reducer whose outlet axle rotates at a speed of n= 180 rpm. The motor and reducer are protected by a UNE-FLEX flexible axle coupling.
1. COUPLING BETWEEN MOTOR AND REDUCER
N = 16 kW
n = 1450 rpm
M = NKw/n. 9549. k
Elevator buckets figure in group 2 of the classification. Under “variable load machinery”. The multiplying co-efficient k = 1,5 figures in the k value table under heading 2 and in the classification of machines driven by “electric motor”.
M = 16/1450 x 9549 x 1.5 = 158.07 Nm
Then, according to the power table. the appropriate coupling for a torque of 158 Nm. is model M-5.
2. COUPLING BETWEEN REDUCER AND ELEVATOR, BUCKET MECHANISM
N = 16 kW
n = 180 rpm
M = NKw/n. 9549. k
M = 16/180 x 9549 x 1.5 = 1273 Nm
Then, according to the power table, the appropriate coupling for a torque of 1273 Nm is the model M-9.
Note: to carry out the correct selection of a coupling, an indication of power and speed is generally sufficient. However, it’s better to have the following information as well:
NECESSARY DATA FOR THE SELECTION OF THE APPROPIATE UNE-FLEX COUPLING DRIVEN BY ELECTRIC MOTOR
- Kind of motor (make, type, running factor in ED %
- Power of motor: N…..kW
- Speed: n…….rpm
- Input and output shaft diameters
- Couple of start of the motor: C = Nm
- Type of machine to be driven
- Whether operation is continuous or intermittent
- Number of runs per hour
- Whether operation conditions are uniform, irregular or special, and if there is any running change